Memory Management

An OS maintains page tables to translate the virtual memory pages into physical memory addresses. All modern x86 CPUs provide support for virtual memory in hardware. The translation from virtual to physical addresses is performed by the memory management unit, or MMU. The current address is in the CR3 register (hardware page table pointer), and the most used parts of the page table are cached in the TLBs.

It is clear that a guest OS running on a virtual machine cannot have access to the real page tables. Instead, the guest OS sees page tables which run on an emulated MMU. These tables give the guest OS the illusion that it can translate the virtual guest OS addresses into real physical addresses, but in reality the VMM is dealing with this "in the shadow", out of sight of the guest OS. The real page tables are hidden and managed by the VMM and still run on the real MMU. So the real page tables consist of "shadow page tables", which are used to translate the virtual addresses of the guest OS into the real physical pages.

Every time the guest OS modifies its page mapping, the virtual MMU module will capture (trap) the modification and adjust the shadow page tables accordingly. As you've likely guessed, this costs a lot of CPU cycles. Depending on the virtualization technique and the changes made in the page tables, this bookkeeping takes 3 to 400 (!) times more cycles than in the native situation[3]. The result is that in memory intensive applications, memory management causes the largest part of the performance penalty you have to pay for virtualization.

I/O Virtualization Paravirtualization
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